Reverse Osmosis & UPW


In order to meet high quality water requirements, reverse osmosis (RO) and ultrapure water (UPW) systems are designed to produce water with very high purity.

The specific water requirements for a given application, determine the appropriate water treatment options necessary to achieve the requisite quality of water.


Reverse osmosis (RO) is a process where a fluid, typically water, containing dissolved minerals is deionised by pressurising and pushing the fluid through a semi-permeable membrane. By applying pressure during the RO treatment process, the membranes typically retain 95–99% of the dissolved solids (mostly salts) from the raw feed stream into a concentrate. At the same time, the resulting permeate stream is mostly depleted of the dissolved minerals and is suitable for a range of applications. RO technology is utilised in desalination plants, utilising both brackish as well as seawater as feedwater, BWRO and SWRO, respectively. In addition to the utilisation of RO treatment for drinking water production through desalination, RO systems are also utilised in water softening systems in the hospitality and health sectors, as well as industrial applications including boiler make up water systems in power generation. Other industrial applications include the adoption of RO systems for dewatering of process and waste streams, in order to reduce overall volumes product or waste volumes.


Similar to RO systems, ultrapure water (UPW) systems produce high purity water through the removal of contaminants. In order to produce ultrapure water, most UPW systems utilise multistage purification steps including reverse osmosis, ion exchange and ultraviolet disinfection for contaminant destruction.


Small-scale packaged UPW systems are commonly used in laboratory settings, particularly medical and analytical laboratories, where it is important to ensure that treated water is not a source of contamination. In larger scale industrial settings such as the semiconductor industry, where bulk volumes of ultrapure water are required, specific process steps are adopted to remove particular contaminants from a given feedwater.


Ultrapure Water Guidelines

The ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) defines 4 different standard grades for pure water used in laboratories.


Grade I

Grade II

Grade III

Grade IV

Conductivity µS/cm, 25O C




Resistivity, 25O C






 TOC (µg/L)





Total Silica (µg/L)





Sodium (µg/L)





Chlorides (µg/L)










Special requirements for reagent Grade Water

Distillation or equal process followed by ion exchange and 0.2 µm filter

Distillation or equal process followed by ion exchange

0.45 µm filter  


Bacteria (CFU/mL)





Endotoxin (IU/mL)






At Parkway, our team of water treatment technicians and engineers are able to assist in developing a reliable and effective reverse osmosis or UPW solution, to meet project specific requirements, including the toughest water treatment challenges.


Our Reverse Osmosis & UPW related PRODUCTS include

  • Water Treatment Systems
    • Ultrapure Water Systems
    • Reverse Osmosis Systems
  • Filters & Membranes
    • Membrane Filtration – MF
    • Membrane Filtration – NF
    • Membrane Filtration – RO
    • Media Filtration
    • Cartridge Filters
  • Analytical Instruments
  • Chemical Dosing Equipment
  • Water Treatment Chemicals
  • Other Reverse Osmosis & UPW Products
    • A range of other reverse osmosis and UPW related products.


Our Reverse Osmosis & UPW related SERVICES include

  • Analytical Testing Services
    • We are able to determine the presence and nature of dissolved contaminants.
  • Project Evaluation Services
    • We are able to perform a feedstock characterisation study to determine potential reverse osmosis & UPW system design options.
  • Process Development Services
    • We are able to model, evaluate, optimise and validate various process treatments including reverse osmosis and UPW options, to ensure key project requirements are satisfied.
  • Project Engineering Services
    • We are able to provide engineering support from the early process engineering phase, all the way through to more advanced stages of designing an appropriate reverse osmosis & UPW system.
  • Installation & Project Management Services
    • We are able to perform all site related works, including the installation and commissioning of reverse osmosis & UPW systems.
  • Operations & Maintenance Services
    • We are able to assist with operations and maintenance of reverse osmosis & UPW treatment systems, to ensure the installed system continues to operate in line with design specifications.


Our Reverse Osmosis & UPW related SOLUTIONS include

  • Integrated Reverse Osmosis & UPW Solutions
    • By leveraging our industry leading range of reverse osmosis & UPW related products and services, our team of water treatment specialists is able to supply a standard integrated system, in order to minimise costs and maintain short delivery timeframes.
    • For larger projects, or applications where a more specialised requirement may exist, we are able to design packaged systems, to provide a reliable and effective reverse osmosis or UPW solution to meet project specific requirements.
    • Packaged solutions provide the advantages of a custom engineered system, incorporating a range of treatment options, instrumentation, controls and other process integrations, whilst minimising the requirement for onsite installation, resulting in improving onsite safety and reduced installation costs.

Additional information regarding our range of Reverse Osmosis & UPW Systems and related solutions, is outlined in the Parkway Reverse Osmosis & UPW Systems brochure.


For additional information, or to discuss how we can assist you acquire the most suitable reverse osmosis or UPW related solution to address your water deionisation related challenges or requirements, we invite you to reach out and speak to a Parkway water treatment specialist, today.


Contact Us


General Enquiries

1300 7275929 (PARKWAY)


Parkway Process Solutions – Melbourne

+61(0) 3 9069 3200


Parkway Process Solutions – Perth

+61(0) 8 9249 9003