Frequent and accurate water sampling and testing forms the basis of many water treatment decisions. We offer a full spectrum of analytical testing services, to ensure we are able to leverage timely and accurate analytical data, to verify the performance of your existing water treatment infrastructure, as well as provide insights for improvement.



In addition to our analytical testing services, we also provide a range of on-site sampling and testing services as well as capabilities to perform specialised sample preparation and characterisation, through our partners. To find out more about how our range of specialised analytical testing services could help you with your project, read on or get in touch with us.


At Parkway, we understand the importance of fast and precise analytical test results and the critical importance of this analytical information in guiding plant and process performance evaluations as well as ensuring optimal decision making.

We deliver a wide spectrum of analytical testing services through a range of testing platforms including:

  • Direct Testing Capabilities – We offer a range of inhouse water testing related services, including on-site sampling/testing which ensures rapid turnaround in results.
  • Partnership with Victoria University – Through our long-standing strategic partnership with Victoria University, we have access to state-of-the -art analytical laboratories, including leading technical experts, to assist with complex sample preparation and efficient analytical testing.
  • Partnership with ALS – Whilst we work with a range of leading NATA accredited analytical laboratories, we work closely with ALS Global, a leading globally recognised testing and certification company, to provide access to a suite of sophisticated, standardised and certified analytical water testing services.

ALS offers a wide range of ground water, wastewater, and drinking water testing and analysis laboratory services in support of site remediation, studies, and other projects. ALS is a leading testing, inspection, certification and verification company head quartered in Brisbane, Australia. Servicing multiple industries globally, ALS employs over 15,000 staff in more than 65 countries.

Key water quality, testing & analysis related services offered by Parkway, through our partnership with ALS include:



ALS offers aquatic toxicity testing (WET Testing) in effluent and receiving waters utilizing both vertebrate and invertebrate freshwater species.

Both acute and chronic bioassays are performed using Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas(fathead minnows) to determine the toxicity of the water.

Ceriodaphnia dubia

Ceriodaphnia dubia are freshwater organisms used in both acute and chronic toxicity testing. They are most commonly known as water fleas and inhabit lakes, ponds and marshes throughout much of the world. Neonates utilized in acute toxicity tests are introduced into five dilutions of the sample for 48 hours. Mortality and simple water chemistry are monitored at test start, after 24 hours, and at test end. At test completion, a statistical program (CETIS) is used to generate a LC50/TUa (the concentration at which 50% of the organisms are affected).

In chronic toxicity testing, Ceriodaphnia neonates are monitored for 7 days or until 60% of the control organisms have three broods of offspring. During the test, organisms are placed into fresh sample dilutions daily and mortality and offspring are monitored and recorded. At test completion, a statistical program is used to generate the LOEC (lowest observable effected concentration), NOEC (no observable effected concentration) and IC25.

Pimephales promela

Pimephales promelas commonly known as fathead minnows are cultured in house and are maintained in a recirculating system. P. promelas used for acute testing may be 1-14 days of age and are introduced into 5 sample dilutions for 48 hours. As with Ceriodaphnia, P. promelas undergo the same monitoring and statistical evaluation.

Pimephales promelas used in chronic testing must be <1 day old. Test chambers are cleaned and new sample media is introduced daily. Mortality is monitored for 7 days and at test end, the organisms are dried to determine if organism growth was affected. CETIS, a statistical program, is used to generate the LOEC, NOEC and IC25.


ALS offers a full-service drinking water testing services at laboratories throughout the world.

Our experienced staff has expertise in testing drinking water for inorganic and volatile organic compounds. We have instrumentation dedicated to drinking water testing, and test for all the regulated and non-regulated compounds of concern.

Our commitment to the provision of safe and clean drinking water is unwavering. The number of municipalities, utilities, and drinking water companies that choose ALS demonstrates our position as one of the leading drinking water analysis suppliers in the world today.

ALS is accredited under various national and local programs. Methods and accreditations may vary depending on ALS location.


ALS offers a full range of groundwater testing services at accredited laboratories throughout the world. The experienced chemists at ALS have expertise in testing groundwater for a wide array of compounds. ALS has state-of-the-art instrumentation and provides analysis for all the regulated and non-regulated compounds of concern.

ALS offers an extensive range of general chemical analysis on groundwater samples consistent with the regulations of various national, local, and regulatory agencies.The ALS commitment to a clean and safe environment is unwavering. The number of firms and agencies that choose ALS as their analytical partner demonstrates a position as one of the leading groundwater analysis suppliers in the world. Methods and accreditations may vary depending on ALS location.


ALS has experienced chemists who perform analysis of soil and water for inorganic compounds, giving you reliable data for your projects. ALS provided a full range of inorganic environmental analytical testing services in a variety of matrices, including soil, sediment, water, and air.

Analytical methods are based on well-established, internationally-recognized procedures such as those published by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the American Public Health Association (APHA), as well as local country standards. 


These capabilities include, but are not limited to:


  • Routine ICP-OES
  • Trace ICP-MS
  • High-Resolution ICP-MS
  • AAS/AFS Hydride (As, Se, Sb)
  • Mercury (Cold Vapour)
  • Metals Speciation (Methyl Mercury)


Other Inorganics

  • Acid Volatile Sulfide
  • Acidity
  • Alkalinity
  • Available Nutrients
  • Carbon
  • Chlorate/Chlorite
  • COD
  • Colour
  • Conductivity
  • Cyanide
  • Exchangeable cations
  • Major Cations/Anions
  • Nutrients (N + P)
  • pH
  • Salinity
  • Simultaneous Extr. Metals
  • Solids (TDS, TSS, etc.)
  • Sulfide
  • Sulphur/Nitrogen
  • Thiocyanate
  • Turbidity

ALS now offers analysis of water to detect the presence of microplastic particles. The analysis is qualitative to identify which particles are present in the analytical sample.


Analysis of Microplastics in water

Microplastics in the environment are subject to intense research and studies reveal that they are present in products we use daily, for example, bottled water and cosmetics. Plastics degrade very slowly in the environment and the large amount of plastics in our water environment has led to an increased focus on the harmful effects to marine organisms.


What are Microplastics?

The definition of microplastics is small plastic particles less than 5 mm, with most microplastics being smaller than 1 mm. Microplastics are very tiny pieces of manufactured plastic (microbeads) used as additives to health and beauty products. Plastic pellets that are used as raw material in the industry are unintentionally spread into the environment during transport and production. These particles are called primary particles. Microplastics can also derive from larger plastic debris that degrades into smaller and smaller pieces. These particles are called secondary particles.


What are the sources of Microplastics?

Studies show that important sources of microplastics in the sea are road wear and abrasion of tyres, artificial turfs, plastic fibres from textiles and industrially produced plastic pellets. Health and beauty products which contain microbeads (for example toothpaste and soap) also contribute to the contamination.

Plastics that are disposed of in the environment instead of being recycled will eventually degrade into smaller plastic particles.

It is uncertain how much of the particles from road wear and artificial turfs are transported to water recipients. However, microplastics from health products and synthetic clothes fibres in washing machines enter the sea via the wastewater.


Microplastics in our water environment

Microplastics can be found both in the water and in the sediment. Plastics biodegrade very slowly and marine organisms such as mussels, oysters and fish may eat the particles. This can lead to starvation and even death. Additives in the plastic, for example, flame retardants, may be toxic to the marine organisms and individuals higher in the food chain.


Analysis of Microplastics at ALS 

ALS has developed a method for analysis of microplastics in water. We degrade organic material before the analysis. The analysis is performed by SEM (scanning electron microscope) and particles between 10 µm and 1 mm can be identified (on request we are able to analyse particles as small as 1 µm).

Contact us today to request a quote or get more information.


ALS has experienced chemists who perform analysis of soil and water for organic compounds, giving you reliable data for your projects. ALS provided a full range of organic environmental analytical testing services in a variety of matrices, including soil, sediment, water, and air.

Analytical methods are based on well-established, internationally-recognized procedures such as those published by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the American Public Health Association (APHA), as well as local country standards.

 These capabilities include, but are not limited to:

  • Alkanolamines
  • Alcohols
  • Chlorophenols
  • Chlorophenols/Phenolics
  • Dioxins/Furans
  • Glycols
  • Haloacetic Acids
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Chromatograms
  • Oil & Grease
  • PHCs-F1-F4G (CCME)
  • Glycols
  • Naphthenic Acids - FTIR
  • Naphthenic Acids - HRMS
  • NDMA
  • Non-Target GC/MS
  • Nonylphenols
  • Oil and Grease - FTIR
  • PAHs
  • PAHs - Extended/Alkylated
  • PBDEs
  • PCBs
  • PCBs - Congeners
  • Phenols, Total
  • Tannin & Lignin
  • THMs (Trihalomethanes)
  • Resins and Fatty Acids (RFAs)
  • Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds
  • Volatile Fatty Acids
  • Volatile Organic Compounds


  • Sample collection
  • Heavy metal, organic and wet chemistry analysis
  • Microscopic examination of activated sludge to assist operators in maintaining sewerage plant performance
  • Trade waste discharge suitability
  • Assist in the preparation of annual reports for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)



  • Total Toxic Organics (TTOS)
  • Semi-Volatile Organics and Pesticides
  • Cyanide
  • Chemical Oxygen Demand
  • Biochemical Oxygen Demand
  • Total Suspended Solids
  • Title 22 Metals
  • Sulfides (Total and Dissolved)
  • Oil and Grease
  • Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons
  • Typical parameters for Stormwater
  • Nitrate as N
  • Nitrite as N
  • Cyanide
  • Chemical Oxygen Demand
  • Biochemical Oxygen Demand
  • Total Suspended Solids
  • Title 22 Metals
  • Oil and Grease
  • Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons


Hazardous Samples

We appreciate clients will not always be able to notify the laboratory of potentially hazardous samples, however clients are requested to inform ALS of any handling concerns or potential risk to health, safety, equipment or the environment of samples they forward to ALS.

  • Extreme pH values
  • Analytes present at concentrations greater than 10%
  • Strong or noxious odors, vapors
  • Asbestos
  • Highly saline water
  • Biological hazards 

Please let the laboratory know when you are sending hazardous samples, so we can take precautions to keep our staff safe.



ALS offers expertise in high-resolution analyses for dioxins, furans, dioxin-like compounds, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners.

ALS features sophisticated high-resolution gas chromatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometers (HRGC/HRMS) to perform high-resolution testing on a variety of matrices including, but not limited to: food products, sediments, animal tissues, water, soil, air, waste, household dust, and building products.

ALS features specialized laboratory equipment achieves 10-100 times lower detection limits than older instruments and is among the most sensitive in the industry. The HRGC/HRMS is an optimal choice for ultra low-level trace detection applications such as the analysis of dioxins, furans, and PCB congeners.



The high-resolution laboratory in the USA maintains a variety of certifications and accreditations with federal and state agencies and regulatory programs. Under the current NELAC program, we are able to perform high-resolution testing services in most states for air, water, wastewater, solid, and hazardous waste.

Table A gives the various analytical methods performed in the USA and the regulatory program to which they are typically associated.

ALS offers a range of electronic data deliverables (EDD). By generating a number of various deliverable formats, ALS is able to support data transfer into large relational database management systems. ALS also works closely with commercial clients to produce electronic data formats compatible with their systems.



ALS also has extensive expertise in in Europe for high resolution analyses for dioxin and dioxin-like compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PDBEs), among other compounds.

The dedicated 525 square meters laboratory is located in the heart of Europe and features four sophisticated instruments high-resolution gas chromatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometers (HRGC/HRMS) to perform ultra-trace testing on a variety of matrices including, but not limited to: food products, feed stocks, sediments, water, soil, emission, air, waste, chemical products.


High-resolution analyses include, but are not limited to:

Table A


ALS offers PFAS (poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances) testing in environmental matrices and the option to include total oxidisable precursor (TOP) assay to estimate the total content of these fluorinated compounds in samples.

ALS offers the following methods, with over 30 individual compounds included. TOP assay may be performed on the listed matrices.


 Matrix Method Reporting limit
Drinking Water EPA 537 Rev 1.1 or 537.1 2 ng/l
Drinking Water EPA 533

2 ng/L
Sediment EPA 537Mod

1 µg/kg
Soil EPA 537Mod  

1 µg/kg
Soil LC/MS/MS compliant with QSM 5.1 Table B-15

1 µg/kg
Soil ASTMD 7968 25 ug/Kg - 125 ug/Kg
Tissue EPA 537Mod

1 µg/kg
Water EPA 537Mod 2 ng/l
Water LC/MS/MS compliant with QSM 5.1 Table B-15 5 ng/L
Water EPA 8327 10ng/L - 50 ng/L
Water ASTM D7979 10ng/L - 50 ng/L



Containers for Sampling

Contact Parkway for sample container requirements. The use of unsuitable containers may compromise results.


About PFAS

Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) are a class of synthetic compounds widely used in industrial applications that are characterized by highly fluorinated hydrophobic linear carbon chain attached to a hydrophilic functional group. PFAS’ are of interest due to their extreme persistence in the environment, ability to bioaccumulate, toxicity potential, and adverse human health effects.

The chemical structure of PFAS’ gives them unique properties, such as thermal stability and the ability to repel water and oil, making them useful in a wide variety of industrial and consumer products (fabric stain protectors, waterproofing of fabric, non-stick cookware, food packaging, lubricants, firefighting foams).

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are two of the best known and most studied PFAS’. During the manufacturing process of some PFAS, and the use of PFAS products PFOA and PFOS have been released to the air, water and soil throughout the world. PFOA and PFOS have been detected in many isolated parts of the word indicating that long-range transport of these chemicals is possible.

Other PFAS’ of environmental concern include Perfluorooctane sulfonamides, sulfonamidoethanols, Fluorotelomer sulfonates, and other forms of Perfluoro carboxylates and Perfluorosulfonates.

EPA has found that there is suggestive evidence that PFOS and PFOA may cause cancer (EPA 2016d, 2016e).

The World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer has found that PFOA is possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B) (IARC 2016).

In May 2016, EPA established drinking water health advisories of 70 parts per trillion (0.07 micrograms per liter (µg/L)) for the combined concentrations of PFOS and PFOA. Above these levels, EPA recommends that drinking water systems take steps to assess contamination, inform consumers and limit exposure. The health advisory levels are based on the RfDs (EPA 2016b, 2016c).


What is TOP Assay

Traditional PFAS analyses report only of few of the thousands of known PFAS compounds and therefore may be under reporting the presence of these compounds in environmental samples.

However, an alternative method is available for PFAS analysis using Total Oxidizable Precursor Assay (TOP Assay). TOP Assay is a standardized pre-treatment of water samples or sample extracts designed to expose underlying PFAS not amenable to standard analysis. Perfluorinated carboxylates and sulfonates are stated to remain intact under the conditions of the assay.

Water samples, sample extracts (soil or water), or diluted foam products are incubated with potassium persulfate (60 mM) and sodium hydroxide (0.125 M) at 85°C for six hours. Samples are neutralized and then run for the full suite of PFAS compounds.

Note that this is an empirical test and comparable results can only be achieved by precisely following the conditions of the test.

Under the conditions of the assay, it is expected that fluortelomer sulfonates are broken down to shorter chain carboxylates by cleavage of the non-fluorinated portion of the molecule. Perfluorinated carboxylates and sulfonates are stated to remain intact under the conditions of the assay.

The TOP assay is capable of revealing the presence of PFAS that may, given time, weather to perfluorinated alkyl substances of concern, but is definitely not a predictor of the endpoint of abiotic and biotic breakdown in the field. Oxidation has been well considered as a treatment option. This includes both alkaline and heat activated persulfate, both of which are used in the TOP assay. In experiments performed at ALS, a 13C-labeled PFOS surrogate was added pre-oxidation and regularly recovered around 80%. Oxidation of a full analytical standard (not under standard conditions) also yielded less than a mass balance when summed, which indicated some loss to shorter chain PFAS carboxylates not normally quantified. On the flip side, if the oxidant is exhausted either by competition from non-PFAS organic carbon or high concentrations of PFAS, both qualitative and quantitative conversion of AFFF PFAS precursors may be incomplete.

In conclusion, the TOP assay is a useful tool in exposing the potential for ongoing contamination by PFAS compounds through biotic and abiotic weathering processes. Results, however, should be treated with caution, especially where health or ecological risk assessment is required. There may also be a case to expand analytical suites to cover other PFAS that may arise from weathering that might include some oxidation and hydrolysis, and, ideally, to have better models for predicting environmental endpoints of AFFF degradation.



In order to learn more about how our Analytical Testing Services could assist in addressing existing water treatment challenges, or ensure successful outcomes for your next project, get in touch with our team of experienced water treatment professionals to explore the possibilities.